the Kashmir Conflict


The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of South Asia.

Inside Story - Kashmir conflict: security or political problem? by Al Jazeera English


China has at times played a minor role.

Why Are Pakistan And India Fighting Over Kashmir? by NowThis


India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947 and 1965, as well as the Kargil War.

The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict,[note ] was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control.


The two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier.

The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about 35.421226°N 77.109540°E / 35.421226; 77.109540, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.


India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, and, as of 2010, administers approximately 43% of the region.

Jammu pronunciation is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India, often denoted by the acronym J&K.


It controls Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier.

Ladakh is a region in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.


India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which administers approximately 37% of Jammu and Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.

Baltistan, also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet, is a mountainous region on the border of Pakistan and India in the Karakoram mountains just south of K2.

Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a self-governing administrative division of Pakistan.

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.


China currently administers Demchok district, the Shaksgam Valley, and the Aksai Chin region.


China's claim over these territories has been disputed by India since China took Aksai Chin during the Sino-Indian War of 1962.


The present conflict is in Kashmir Valley.


The root of conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian government is tied to a dispute over local autonomy.

The Government of India is a federal government established by the Constitution of India as the constituted governing authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Republic of India.


Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s, and by 1988, many of the democratic reforms introduced by the Indian Government had been reversed.


Non-violent channels for expressing discontent were thereafter limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India.


In 1987, a disputed state election created a catalyst for the insurgency when it resulted in some of the state's legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups.


In July 1988 a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian Government began the Kashmir Insurgency.


Although thousands of people have died as a result of the turmoil in Jammu and Kashmir, the conflict has become less deadly in recent years.


Protest movements created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government, specifically the Indian Military, have been active in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989.


Elections held in 2008 were generally regarded as fair by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and had a high voter turnout in spite of calls by separatist militants for a boycott.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.


The election resulted in the creation of the pro-India Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, which then formed a government in the state.

The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference is a state political party in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.


According to Voice of America, many analysts have interpreted the high voter turnout in this election as a sign that the people of Kashmir endorsed Indian rule in the state.

Voice of America is a United States government-funded multimedia news source and the official external broadcasting institution of the United States.

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