John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
JFK: Mini Biography by BIO
The Cuban Missile Crisis, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the establishment of the Peace Corps, developments in the Space Race, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Trade Expansion Act to lower tariffs, and the Civil Rights Movement all took place during his presidency.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a unitary sovereign state comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Under the Trade Expansion Acts of 1965, the United States Congress granted the White House unprecedented authority to negotiate tariff reductions of up to 80%.
President John F. Kennedy's "Peace Speech" by C-SPAN
A member of the Democratic Party, his New Frontier domestic program was largely enacted as a memorial to him after his death.
The term New Frontier was used by liberal, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him.
Kennedy also established the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with Communist states.
A communist state is a state that is usually administered and governed by a single party representing the proletariat, guided by Marxist-Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
He increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over Eisenhower.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975.
In Cuba, a failed attempt was made at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro in April 1961.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz, commonly known as Fidel Castro, is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
He subsequently rejected plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false-flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
In October 1962, it was discovered Soviet ballistic missiles had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting period of unease, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, is seen by many historians as the closest the human race has ever come to nuclear war between nuclear armed belligerents.
A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a ballistic trajectory with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target.
Nuclear warfare is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
After military service in the United States Naval Reserve in World War II, Kennedy represented Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953.
Massachusetts mass-ə-CHOO-sits; officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier.
11 is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12.
He was elected subsequently to the U.S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 until 1960.
Kennedy defeated Vice President, and Republican candidate, Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. Presidential Election.
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U.S. president to resign from office.
At age 43, he became the youngest elected president and the second-youngest president.
Kennedy was also the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president.
To date, Kennedy has been the only Roman Catholic president and the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.
Dallas is a major city in the state of Texas and is the largest urban center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the United States.
Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested that afternoon and determined to have fired shots that hit the President from a sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository.
The Texas School Book Depository, now known as the Dallas County Administration Building, is a seven-floor building facing Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, United States.
Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby fatally shot Oswald two days later in a jail corridor.
Jack Leon Ruby was an American nightclub owner and murderer from Chicago, Illinois, who lived in Dallas, Texas.
The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, but its report was sharply criticized.
The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established by President Lyndon B. Johnson through Executive Order 11130 on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy that had taken place on November 22, 1963.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI, is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nation's prime federal law enforcement agency.
The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations agreed that Oswald fired the shots that killed the president, but also concluded that Kennedy was likely assassinated as the result of a conspiracy.
The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. The HSCA completed its investigation in 1978 and issued its final report the following year, concluding that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.