Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.
Johannes Gutenberg Biography by CloudBiography
His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important invention of the second millennium, the seminal event which ushered in the modern period of human history.
Movable type is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document usually on the medium of paper which was first invented in ancient China.
The history of printing goes back to the duplication of images by means of stamps in very early times.
Johannes Gutenberg (5/5) Die Erfindung des Buchdrucks by Kanal von RichardDavidPrecht
It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.
The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation was a schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other early Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use the printing press and movable type in Europe.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium, thereby transferring the ink.
Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink for printing books; adjustable molds; mechanical movable type; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
A screw press is a type of machine press in which the ram is driven up and down by a screw.
His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system that allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike.
Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type.
In printing, type metal refers to the metal alloys used in traditional typefounding and hot metal typesetting.
The alloy was a mixture of lead, tin, and antimony that melted at a relatively low temperature for faster and more economical casting, cast well, and created a durable type.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb and atomic number 51.
In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society.
Mass communication is the study of how people and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
The relatively unrestricted circulation of information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class.
Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read, write, and use arithmetic.
Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca.
A lingua franca also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Nationalism is a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture or ethnicity that holds that group together.
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk printing.
A rotary printing press is a printing press in which the images to be printed are curved around a cylinder.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten manuscript, which was the existing method of book production in Europe, and upon woodblock printing, and revolutionized European book-making.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Gutenberg's printing technology spread rapidly throughout Europe and later the world.
His major work, the Gutenberg Bible, has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts in Judaism and Christianity.