Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a Jewish preacher and religious leader who has become the central figure of Christianity.
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.
Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Nazareth is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
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Christians believe him to be the Son of God and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament.
The Old Testament is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
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Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the biblical Jesus reflects the historical Jesus.
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions and other Christian accounts of Jesus."
The quest for the historical Jesus refers to academic efforts to determine what words and actions, if any, may be attributed to Jesus, and to use the findings to provide portraits of the historical Jesus.
The historical reliability of the Gospels refers to the reliability and historic character of the four New Testament gospels as historical documents.
Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was baptized by John the Baptist and subsequently began his own ministry, preaching his message orally and often being referred to as "rabbi".
He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, and was crucified by the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect.
Pontius Pilate was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 2637.
Jesus debated fellow Jews on how to best follow God, performed healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse, which illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
After his death, his followers believed he was resurrected, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian Church.
The Christian Church is a term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to the Christian religious tradition throughout history.
His birth is celebrated annually on December 25 as a holiday known as Christmas, his crucifixion is honored on Good Friday, and his resurrection is celebrated on Easter.
Easter, also called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD.
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed most commonly on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary.
The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, and the alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birth date of Jesus.
Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, whence he will return.
Holy Spirit is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Most Christians believe Jesus enables humans to be reconciled to God.
The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology; though some believe Jesus's role as savior has more existential or societal concerns than the afterlife, and a few notable theologians have suggested that Jesus will bring about a universal reconciliation.
In Christian theology, universal reconciliation is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimately be reconciled to God.
Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things."
The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity holds that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.
Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin but was not the Son of God.
A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, is someone who follows or practises Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Quran states that Jesus himself never claimed divinity.
To most Muslims, Jesus was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God.
Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies and asserting that the resurrection is a Christian legend.
Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.