The Internet of things, stylised Internet of Things, is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.
Computer software, or simply software, is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output.
What is The Internet of Things? by FW: Thinking
In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things defined the IoT as "the infrastructure of the information society."
Infrastructure refers to structures, systems, and facilities serving the economy of a business, industry, country, city, town, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Windows & The Internet of Things by Windows
The IoT allows objects to be sensed and/or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.
When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities.
Intelligent transportation systems are advanced applications which, without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.
Home automation or smart home is the residential extension of building automation and involves the control and automation of lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and security, as well as home appliances such as washerfreezers that use WiFi for remote monitoring.
A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources.
Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure.
Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020.
Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes beyond machine-to-machine communications and covers a variety of protocols, domains, and applications.
The interconnection of these embedded devices, is expected to usher in automation in nearly all fields, while also enabling advanced applications like a smart grid, and expanding to the areas such as smart cities.
Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention.
"Things," in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip transponders on farm animals, electric clams in coastal waters, automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis devices for environmentalfreezers that use Wi-Fi for remote monitoring.
In molecular biology, biochips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions.
As well as the expansion of Internet-connected automation into a plethora of new application areas, IoT is also expected to generate large amounts of data from diverse locations, with the consequent necessity for quick aggregation of the data, and an increase in the need to index, store, and process such data more effectively.
IoT is one of the platforms of today's Smart City, and Smart Energy Management Systems.