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the Indus River

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The Indus River is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

The Indus Valley Civilization: The Masters of the River by The Mysterious India

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Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit-Baltistan and the Hindukush ranges, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh.

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Ladakh is a region in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan.

A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a 'nationality' despite having no political autonomy.

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The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2.

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3, twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow.

The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources claim that the Amazon River is longer.

The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh.

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In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Panjnad which itself has five major tributaries, namely, the Chenab, Jhelum, the Ravi, the Beas, and the Sutlej.

In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.

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Its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal, and the Kurram.

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Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside.

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries.

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

10

The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region, while the lower course of the Indus is known as Sindh and ends in a large delta.

The Punjab, also spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region.

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The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age.

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During the 2nd millennium BC, the Punjab region was mentioned in the hymns of the Hindu Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Zoroastrian Avesta as Hapta Hindu.

The Rigveda is an ancient Indo-Aryan Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.

The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, and the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra.

The Ror dynasty was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC.

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The Indus River came into the knowledge of the West early in the Classical Period, when King Darius of Persia sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, ca.

Scylax of Caryanda was a renowned Greek explorer and writer of the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE.

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