The Index Librorum Prohibitorum was a list of publications deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious, and therefore banned by the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.28 billion members worldwide.
マブラヴ オルタネイティブ OP by Librorum-Prohibitorum Index
The 9th century witnessed the creation of what is considered to be the first index, called the Decretum Glasianum, but it was never officially authorized.
An author is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus also be described as a writer.
The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
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Much later, a first version was promulgated by Pope Paul IV in 1559, which Paul F. Grendler believed marked "the turning-point for the freedom of enquiry in the Catholic world", and which lasted less than a year, being then replaced by what was called the Tridentine Index, which relaxed aspects of the Pauline Index that had been criticized and had prevented its acceptance.
Pope Paul IV, C.R., born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559.
The pope, also known as the pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The 20th and final edition appeared in 1948, and the Index was formally abolished on 14 June 1966 by Pope Paul VI.
Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
The aim of the list was to protect the faith and morals of the faithful by preventing the reading of theologically, culturally, and politically disruptive books.
Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group.
Books thought to contain such errors included works by astronomers such as Johannes Kepler's Epitome astronomiae Copernicanae, which was on the Index from 1621 to 1835, and by philosophers, like Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.
The Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae was an astronomy book on the heliocentric system published by Johannes Kepler in the period 1617 to 1621.
The Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant,, is one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.
The various editions of the Index also contained the rules of the Church relating to the reading, selling and pre-emptive censorship of books—editions and translations of the Bible that had not been approved by the Church could be banned.
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Latin Church canon law still recommends that works concerning sacred Scripture, theology, canon law, church history, and any writings which specially concern religion or morals, be submitted to the judgment of the local ordinary.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest part of the Catholic Church, governed directly by the Pope, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
The local ordinary consults someone whom he considers competent to give a judgment and, if that person gives the nihil obstat the local ordinary grants the imprimatur.
An imprimatur is, in the proper sense, a declaration authorizing publication of a book.
Nihil obstat is a declaration of no objection to an initiative or an appointment.
Members of religious institutes require the imprimi potest of their major superior to publish books on matters of religion or morals.
Imprimi potest is a declaration by a major superior of a Roman Catholic religious institute that writings on questions of religion or morals by a member of the institute may be printed.
In the Roman Catholic Church a religious institute is "a society in which members...pronounce public vows...and lead a life of brothers or sisters in common".
Some of the scientific theories in works that were on early editions of the Index have long been routinely taught at Catholic universities worldwide; for example, the general prohibition of books advocating heliocentrism was only removed from the Index in 1758, but already in 1742 two Minims mathematicians had published an edition of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica with commentaries and a preface stating that the work assumed heliocentrism and could not be explained without it.
Sir Isaac Newton FRS was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
The burning at the stake of Giordano Bruno, whose entire works were placed on the Index in 1603, was because of teaching the heresy of pantheism, not for heliocentrism or other scientific views.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Pantheism is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Giordano Bruno, born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, one of whose works was on the Index, was beatified in 2007.
Blessed Antonio Francesco Davide Ambrogio Rosmini-Serbati was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and philosopher.
The developments since the abolition of the Index signify "the loss of relevance of the Index in the 21st century."
A complete list of the authors and writings present in the successive editions of the Index is given in J. Martínez de Bujanda, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, 1600–1966.
A list of the books that were on the Index can be found on the World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.