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Hurricane Stan

1

Hurricane Stan was a rather weak but deadly tropical cyclone that affected areas of Central America in early October 2005.

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

American Dad! Hurricane! Stan Tries to Kill Shark and Bear with healthbars by Thomas the Healthbars Guy

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The eighteenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, Stan formed from a tropical wave on October 1 after it had moved into the western Caribbean Sea.

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms.

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records.

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

Guatemala Red Cross response to hurricane Stan (2005) by IFRC

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The depression slowly intensified, and reached tropical storm intensity the following day, before subsequently making its first landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula.

The Yucatán Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.

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Traversing the peninsula, the tropical storm weakened, but was able to re-intensify once it entered the Bay of Campeche.

The Bay of Campeche, or Campeche Sound, is a bight in the southern area of the Gulf of Mexico.

5

Under favorable conditions for tropical development, Stan attained hurricane strength on October 4, and later reached peak intensity with winds of 80 mph and a minimum barometric pressure of 977 mbar.

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth.

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The hurricane maintained this intensity until landfall near Punta Roca Partida, Mexico later the same day.

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America.

7

Once over the mountainous terrain of Mexico, however, Stan quickly weakened, and dissipated on October 5.

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Due to Stan's position within a large area of convective activity and thunderstorms, the hurricane's effects were far-reaching and widespread across Central America.

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Flash floods generated by the hurricane caused severe crop losses, particularly to coffee crops.

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.

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Overall, Stan caused at least 1,668 deaths across six countries, with many others unaccounted for.

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Most of these fatalities occurred in Guatemala, and were mostly caused by mudslides triggered by torrential rainfall.

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil.

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The floods in Guatemala destroyed entire towns and disrupted exportation of petroleum.

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

Gasoline, or petrol, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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In Mexico, the heavy rains triggered additional mudslides and caused rivers to overflow, flooding nearby villages.

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Despite being relatively far from Stan as opposed to other countries, El Salvador was also severely affected by the hurricane.

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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The Santa Ana Volcano erupted while Stan was producing heavy rains in the country, which contributed to the damage already wrought by mudslides.

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Transportation in the country was disrupted.

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Across the region, Stan caused $3.9 billion in damages, primarily due to torrential rainfall.

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