The Hillsborough disaster was a human crush at Hillsborough football stadium in Sheffield, England on 15 April 1989, during the 1988–89 FA Cup semi-final game between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest.
A stampede is uncontrolled concerted running as an act of mass impulse among herd animals or a crowd of people in which the group collectively begins running, often in an attempt to escape a perceived threat.
The FA Cup 1988–89 was the 108th season of the world's oldest football knockout competition, The Football Association Challenge Cup, or FA Cup for short.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, in the East Midlands.
Hillsborough Disaster: How it happened in 1989 by ODN
The resulting 96 fatalities and 766 injuries makes this the worst disaster in British sporting history.
Hillsborough disaster: How the day unfolded - BBC News by BBC News
The crush occurred in the two standing-only central pens in the Leppings Lane stand, allocated to Liverpool supporters.
Shortly before kick-off, in an attempt to ease overcrowding outside the entrance turnstiles, the police match commander, chief superintendent David Duckenfield, ordered exit gate C to be opened, leading to an influx of even more supporters to the already overcrowded central pens.
A turnstile, also called a baffle gate or turnstyle, is a form of gate which allows one person to pass at a time.
Chief superintendent is a senior rank in police forces, especially in those organised on the British model.
In the days and weeks following the disaster, police fed false stories to the press suggesting that hooliganism and drinking by Liverpool supporters were the root causes of the disaster.
Blaming of Liverpool fans persisted even after the Taylor Report of 1990, which found that the main cause of the disaster was a failure of control by South Yorkshire Police.
The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster Inquiry report is the report of an inquiry which was overseen by Lord Justice Taylor, into the causes of the Hillsborough disaster of April 1989, as a result of which, at the time of the report, 95 Liverpool F.C. fans had died.
Following the Taylor report, the Director of Public Prosecutions ruled there was no evidence to justify prosecution of individuals or institutions.
The disaster also led to a number of safety improvements in the largest English football grounds, notably the elimination of fenced standing terraces in favour of all-seater stadiums in the top two tiers of English football.
An all-seater stadium is a sports stadium in which every spectator has a seat.
The first coroner's inquest into the Hillsborough disaster, completed in 1991, ruled all deaths that day to be accidental.
A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.
Families strongly rejected the original coroner's findings, and their fight to have the matter re-opened persisted, despite Lord Justice Stuart-Smith concluding in 1997 there was no justification for a new inquiry.
Private prosecutions brought by the Hillsborough Families Support Group against Duckenfield and his deputy Bernard Murray failed in 2000.
A private prosecution is a criminal proceeding initiated by an individual or private organisation instead of by a public prosecutor who represents the state.
In 2009, a Hillsborough Independent Panel was formed to review all evidence.
Reporting in 2012, it confirmed Taylor's 1990 criticisms, while also revealing new details about the extent of police efforts to shift blame onto fans, the role of other emergency services, and the error of the first coroner's inquest.
The panel's report resulted in the previous findings of accidental death being quashed, and the creating of a new coroner's inquest.
It also produced two criminal investigations led by police in 2012: Operation Resolve to look into the causes of the disaster, and by the Independent Police Complaints Commission to examine actions by police in the aftermath.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales.
The second coroner's inquest was held from 1 April 2014 to 26 April 2016.
It ruled that the supporters were unlawfully killed due to grossly negligent failures by police and ambulance services to fulfil their duty of care to the supporters.
In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others.
The inquest also found that the design of the stadium contributed to the crush, and that supporters were not to blame for the dangerous conditions.
Public anger over the actions of his force during the second inquest led the SYP chief constable David Crompton to be suspended following the verdict.
Chief constable is the rank used by the chief police officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except for the City of London Police and the Metropolitan Police, as well as the chief officers of the three 'special' national police forces, the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, and Civil Nuclear Constabulary.
In June 2017, six people were charged with various offences including manslaughter by gross negligence, misconduct in public office and perverting the course of justice for their actions during and after the disaster.
Malfeasance in office, or official misconduct, is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties.
Perverting the course of justice is an offence committed when a person prevents justice from being served on him/herself or on another party.