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Harriet Tubman

1

Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War.

The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations.

Humanitarianism is a moral of kindness, benevolence, and sympathy extended to all human beings.

The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865.

Harriet Tubman - Mini Bio by BIO

2

Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made some thirteen missions to rescue approximately seventy enslaved families and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad.

The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early-to-mid 19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.

A safe house is, in a generic sense, a secret place for sanctuary or suitable to hide persons from the law, hostile actors or actions, or from retribution, threats or perceived danger.

Harriet Tubman & the Underground Railroad {Part 1} by Judah's Back

3

She later helped abolitionist John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era was an active participant in the struggle for women's suffrage.

Harpers Ferry is a historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States.

Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections.

4

Born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child.

Dorchester County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maryland.

5

Early in life, she suffered a traumatic head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave and hit her instead.

6

The injury caused dizziness, pain, and spells of hypersomnia, which occurred throughout her life.

Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.

7

She was a devout Christian and experienced strange visions and vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God.

A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

Precognition, also called prescience, future vision, future sight is an alleged psychic ability to see events in the future.

8

In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family.

Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the fifth-most populous in the United States, with an estimated population in 2014 of 1,560,297.

9

Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, and eventually guided dozens of other slaves to freedom.

10

Traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman "never lost a passenger".

11

After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America, and helped newly freed slaves find work.

The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.

British North America refers to the former territories of the British Empire in mainland North America.

12

When the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy.

13

The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than 700 slaves.

The Raid at Combahee Ferry was a military operation during the American Civil War conducted on June 1 and June 2, 1863, by elements of the Union Army along the Combahee River in Beaufort and Colleton counties in the South Carolina Lowcountry.

14

After the war, she retired to the family home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents.

Auburn is a city in Cayuga County, New York, United States, located at the north end of Owasco Lake, one of the Finger Lakes, in Central New York.

15

She was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her and she had to be admitted to a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped to establish years earlier.

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa.

16

After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American courage and freedom.

17

On April 20, 2016, the U.S. Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill.

Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837 and was the founder of the Democratic Party.

The Department of the Treasury is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.

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