the H2AFX


H2A histone family member X is a type of histone protein from the H2A family encoded by the H2AFX gene.

In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.


An important phosphorylated form is γH2AX, which forms when double-strand breaks appear.


In humans and other eukaryotes, the DNA is wrapped around histone octamers, consisting of core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, to form chromatin.

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes.


H2AX contributes to nucleosome-formation, chromatin-remodeling and DNA repair, and is also used in vitro as an assay for double-strand breaks in dsDNA.

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

A nucleosome is the basic structural unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes.

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