In religion, ethics, philosophy and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
Religion is a cultural system of behaviors and practices, world views, sacred texts, holy places, ethics, and societal organisation that relate humanity to what an anthropologist has called "an order of existence".
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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In cultures with Manichaean and Abrahamic religious influence, evil is usually perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good, in which good should prevail and evil should be defeated.
Abrahamic religions, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to the tribal patriarch Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him, are one of the major divisions in comparative religion.
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In cultures with Buddhist spiritual influence, both good and evil are perceived as part of an antagonistic duality that itself must be overcome through achieving Śūnyatā meaning emptiness in the sense of recognition of good and evil being two opposing principles but not a reality, emptying the duality of them, and achieving a oneness.
Śūnyatā, translated into English as emptiness and voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
In a religious context, sin is the act of violating God's will by transgressing his commandments.
Evil, in a general context, is the absence or opposite of that which is described as being good.
Often, evil is used to denote profound immorality.
Morality is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
A moral is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Immorality is a concept normally applied to persons or actions.
In certain religious contexts, evil has been described as a supernatural force.
The supernatural is defined as being incapable to be explained by science or the laws of nature, characteristic or relating to ghosts, gods or other supernatural beings or to appear beyond nature.
Definitions of evil vary, as does the analysis of its motives.
However, elements that are commonly associated with evil involve unbalanced behavior involving expediency, selfishness, ignorance, or neglect.
Behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment.
Neglect is a form of abuse where the perpetrator is responsible for caring for someone who is unable to care for themself but fails to do so.
Selfishness is being concerned excessively or exclusively, for oneself or one's own advantage, pleasure, or welfare, regardless of others.
How to achieve good is also discussed in the social sciences and in biology.
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The philosophical question of whether morality is absolute, relative, or illusory leads to questions about the nature of evil, with views falling into one of four opposed camps: moral absolutism, amoralism, moral relativism, and moral universalism.
Moral universalism is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.
Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.
Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.