Gloria Ray Karlmark


Gloria Cecelia Ray Karlmark was a member of the Little Rock Nine, the nine African-American students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957.

Little Rock is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas.

Little Rock Nine Charly Palmer - October Gallery by AL Todd


One of the three children of Harvey C. and Julia Miller Ray, she was 15 when she attempted to enter Little Rock Central High School.

Central High School may refer to a number of high schools:


In 1965, she graduated from the Illinois Institute of Technology with a bachelor's degree in Chemistry and Mathematics.

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years.


She worked briefly as a public school teacher and research assistant at the University of Chicago Research Medical Center.


Ray married Krister Karlmark in 1966, and in 1970, she joined International Business Machine’s Nordic Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden, where she worked as a systems analyst and technical writer.

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.


Karlmark graduated from Kungliga Patent & Registreringsverket in Sweden as a patent attorney, and from 1977 until 1981, she worked for IBM International Patent Operations.


From 1976 to 1994, Karlmark founded and was editor-in-chief of Computers in Industry, an international journal of computer applications in industry.


In 1994, Karlmark went to work in the Netherlands for Philips Telecommunications in Hilversum and, later, for Philips Lighting in Eindhoven.


She and her husband have two children.


In 1998, Karlmark and the other members of the Little Rock Nine were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in recognition of "selfless heroism."

A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress; the Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are the highest civilian awards in the United States.


In 1958, Karlmark and the Little Rock Nine received the Spingarn Medal by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for outstanding achievement by an African American.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.


Karlmark has noted concern about racism in the United States and now resides in Sweden and the Netherlands.

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