Globalism refers to various systems with scope beyond the merely international.

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It is used by political scientists, such as Joseph Nye, to describe "attempts to understand all the interconnections of the modern world—and to highlight patterns that underlie them."

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While primarily associated with world-systems, it can be used to describe other global trends.

A world-system is a socioeconomic system, under systems theory, that encompasses part or all of the globe, detailing the aggregate structural result of the sum of the interactions between polities.


The term is also used by detractors of globalization such as populist movements.

Populism is a political ideology that holds that virtuous citizens are mistreated by a small circle of elites, who can be overthrown if the people recognize the danger and work together.

Globalization or globalisation is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.


The term is similar to internationalism and cosmopolitanism.

Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all human beings are, or could or should be, members of a single community.


Paul James defines globalism, "at least in its more specific use Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity".


America's allies and foes in Eurasia were still recovering from World War II at this time.

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.


American historian James Peck has described this version of globalism as "visionary globalism".


Per Peck, this was a far-reaching conception of "American-centric state globalism using capitalism as a key to its global reach, integrating everything that it can into such an undertaking".


This included global economic integration, which had collapsed under World War I and the Great Depression.

Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states, through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade.


Modern globalism has been linked to the ideas of economic and political integration of countries and economies.


The first person in the United States to use the term "economic integration" in its modern sense was John S. de Beers, an economist in the US Department of the Treasury, towards the end of 1941.


By 1948, "economic integration" was appearing in an increasing number of American documents and speeches.


Paul Hoffman, then head of the Economic Cooperation Administration, used the term in a 1949 speech to the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

The Economic Cooperation Administration was a U.S. government agency set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan.


As The New York Times put it,

The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by The New York Times Company.


Mr Hoffmann used the word 'integration' fifteen times or almost once to every hundred words of his speech.


It is a word that rarely if ever has been used by European statesmen having to do with the Marshall Plan to describe what should happen to Europe's economies.


It was remarked that no such term or goal was included in the commitments the European nations gave in agreeing to the Marshall Plan.


Consequently it appeared to the Europeans that "integration" was an American doctrine that had been superimposed upon the mutual engagements made when the Marshall Plan began …


Globalism emerged as a dominant set of ideologies in the late twentieth century.

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