Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Caucasus is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.
Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
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Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Abkhazia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
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The capital and largest city is Tbilisi.
Tbilisi, in some countries also known by its former foreign name Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million.
Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited.
A semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state.
Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia.
Colchis was an ancient kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centered in present-day western Georgia.
The Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century.
The Georgians or Kartvelians are a nation and ethnic group who constitute a majority of the population in Georgia.
A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries.
The Kingdom of Georgia, also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval monarchy which emerged in circa 1008 AD.
Thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and successive dynasties of Iran.
The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810.
The Kingdom of Imereti was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms.
Russia, also officially known as the Russian Empire, was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, the Kingdom of Kartli and the Kingdom of Kakheti.
Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century.
Following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia obtained its short-lived independence and established a republic led by the Social-Democrats in 1918, only to be invaded by Soviet Russia in 1921 and subsequently absorbed into the Soviet Union as the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, also commonly known as Soviet Georgia, was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abbreviated to USSR, was a socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991.
For most of the following decade, post-communist Georgia suffered from a civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis.
South Ossetia, also known as the Tskhinvali Region, is a partially recognised state in the South Caucasus, located in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian SSR.
Abkhazia is a partially recognised state on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus Mountains, south of Russia and northwest of Georgia proper.
Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a strongly pro-Western foreign policy, aiming at NATO and European integration, and introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms, which brought about mixed results, but strengthened state institutions.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
The Revolution of Roses, often translated into English as the Rose Revolution, describes a pro-Western peaceful change of power in Georgia in November 2003.
The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova.
The Council of Europe is an international organisation focused on promoting human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
It contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained very limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.
Georgia and the overwhelming majority of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgia's sovereign territory under Russian military occupation.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.