Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work.
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, a furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
In physics, potential energy is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work.
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Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
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In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, given as a ratio of distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed.
In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another.
Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are.
It is dependent on engine efficiency, transmission design, and tire design.
Engine efficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work.
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheel's rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
Fuel economy is expressed in miles per gallon in the USA and usually also in the UK ; there is sometimes confusion as the imperial gallon is 20% larger than the US gallon so that mpg values are not directly comparable.
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.
The gallon is a unit of measurement for liquid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement.
In countries using the metric system fuel economy is stated as "fuel consumption" in liters per 100 kilometers.
The litre or liter is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre, 1,000 cubic centimetres or 1/1,000 cubic metre.
The kilometre or kilometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres.
Litres per mil are used in Norway and Sweden.
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Fuel consumption is a more accurate measure of a vehicle’s performance because it is a linear relationship while fuel economy leads to distortions in efficiency improvements.
Weight-specific efficiency may be stated for freight, and passenger-specific efficiency.
In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by ship, boat, or aircraft, although the term is now often extended to cover all types of freight, including that carried by train, van, truck, or intermodal container.