Freedom of the Press


Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through various mediums, such as electronic media and published materials.

Liberty, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism.

Freedom of the Press by Church Militant


Wherever such freedom exists mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections.

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior.

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With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public.


State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest.

The national interest, often referred to by the French expression raison d'État, is a country's goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural.


Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest.

Legislation is law which has been promulgated by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.

Freedom of Information laws allow access by the general public to data held by national governments.


The United Nations' 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers".

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.


This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research, publishing, and press.

Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications."

Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.


The depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution.


The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the same laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to spoken and published expression.

Freedom of speech is the right to articulate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship, or societal sanction.


Despite "freedom of opinion and expression" implemented in the United Nation's 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, some countries continue to have laws prohibiting journalists, television presenters, media-outlets and media-officials of any kind from expressing their personal political opinions,.

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