Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.
Yellow journalism, or the yellow press, is a US term for a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Journalism is the work and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that informs society to at least some degree.
Citizenship fraud 'significant' along US-Mexico border by Fox News
This false information is mainly distributed by social media, but is periodically circulated through mainstream media.
Mainstream media is a term and abbreviation used to refer collectively to the various large mass news media that influence a large number of people, and both reflect and shape prevailing currents of thought.
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Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership, online sharing, and Internet click revenue.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link billions of devices worldwide.
The headline is the text indicating the nature of the article below it.
In the latter case, it is similar to sensational online "clickbait" headlines and relies on advertising revenue generated from this activity, regardless of the veracity of the published stories.
Clickbait is a website link designed to entice users to go to a certain web-page or video.
Intentionally misleading and deceptive fake news differs from obvious satire or parody, which is intended to amuse rather than mislead its audience.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
A parody is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics.
Post-truth politics is a political culture in which debate is framed largely by appeals to emotion disconnected from the details of policy, and by the repeated assertion of talking points to which factual rebuttals are ignored.
For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue.
If publishing a story with false content attracts users, this benefits advertisers and improves ratings.
Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Facebook is a for-profit corporation and online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California, United States.
Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.
Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.
An analysis by Buzzfeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.
BuzzFeed, Inc. is an American Internet media and news company based in New York City.
Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.
Fake news websites are Internet websites that deliberately publish fake news—hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news—often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect.
Defamation — also calumny, vilification, and traducement — is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump began to use the term "fake news" to describe negative press coverage of his presidency.
Donald John Trump is an American businessman, television personality, politician, and the 45th President of the United States.
A trump is a playing card which is elevated above its normal rank in trick-taking games.