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Electric Charge

1

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

Electric Charge by Bozeman Science

2

There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative.

What is Electric Charge and How Electricity Works | Electronics Basics #1 by How To Mechatronics

3

Like charges repel and unlike attract.

4

An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral.

5

Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

6

Electric charge is a conserved property; the net charge of an isolated system, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge, cannot change.

7

Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles.

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

8

In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol p or p+, with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge and mass slightly less than that of a neutron.

9

If there are more electrons than protons in a piece of matter, it will have a negative charge, if there are fewer it will have a positive charge, and if there are equal numbers it will be neutral.

10

Charge is quantized; it comes in integer multiples of individual small units called the elementary charge, e, about 1.602×10−19 coulombs, which is the smallest charge which can exist free.

The elementary charge, usually denoted by e or sometimes qe, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge −e.

11

The proton has a charge of +e, and the electron has a charge of −e.

12

Electric charges create an electric field, if they are moving they also generate a magnetic field.

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

13

The combination of the electric and magnetic field is called the electromagnetic field, and its interaction with charges is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces in physics.

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.

14

The study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is called quantum electrodynamics.

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

15

The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb named after French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb.

SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units.

Charles-Augustin de Coulomb was a French military engineer and physicist.

16

In electrical engineering, it is also common to use the ampere-hour ; in physics and chemistry, it is common to use the elementary charge.

An ampere hour or amp hour is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

17

Chemistry also uses the Faraday constant as the charge on a mole of electrons.

Michael Faraday FRS was a British scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol F and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.

18

The symbol Q often denotes charge.

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