Disinformation is intentionally false or misleading information that is spread in a calculated way to deceive target audiences.
In a religious context, sin is the act of violating God's will by transgressing his commandments.
Disinformation: The Complete Series - "Satanism" by disinformation
The English word, which did not appear in dictionaries until the late-1980s, is a translation of the Russian дезинформация, transliterated as dezinformatsiya.
Transliteration is the conversion of a text from one script to another.
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Disinformation is different from misinformation, which is information that is unintentionally false.
Misinformation can be used to define disinformation — where disinformation is misinformation that is purposefully and intentionally disseminated in order to defraud.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Usage of the term related to a Russian tactical weapon started in 1923, when the Deputy Chairman of the KGB-precursor the State Political Directorate called for the foundation of "a special disinformation office" for clandestine operations.
The State Political Directorate was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923.
A clandestine operation is an intelligence or military operation carried out in such a way that the operation goes unnoticed by the general population or specific 'enemy' forces.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The term was used in 1939, related to a "German Disinformation Service".
Ion Mihai Pacepa, senior official from the Romanian secret police, said the word was coined by Joseph Stalin and used during World War II. In the book, Disinformation, Pacepa wrote Stalin gave the tactic a French-sounding name in order to put forth the ruse that it was actually a technique used by the Western world.
Ion Mihai Pacepa is a former three-star general in the Securitate, the secret police of Communist Romania, who defected to the United States in July 1978 following President Jimmy Carter's approval of his request for political asylum.
The Western world or the West is a term usually referring to different nations, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier.
Soviet intelligence used the term maskirovka to refer to a combination of tactics including disinformation, simulation, camouflage, and concealment.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including as one's capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving.
Russian military deception, sometimes known as Maskirovka, is a military doctrine developed from the start of the twentieth century.
Disinformation saw wider use as a term of Soviet tradecraft, defined in the 1952 official Great Soviet Encyclopedia as spreading "false information with the intention to deceive public opinion."
Tradecraft, within the intelligence community, refers to the techniques, methods and technologies used in modern espionage and generally, as part of the activity of intelligence.
As a result of the defections of KGB officers, more information about disinformation campaigns came to light during the late 1960s through the 1980s.
In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state.
Examples of prominent disinformation campaigns included the fraudulent publication in 1968 of Who's Who in the CIA, and Operation INFEKTION, a widespread attempt to influence world opinion to believe that the United States invented AIDS.
Operation INFEKTION was a KGB disinformation campaign to spread information that the United States invented HIV/AIDS as part of a biological weapons research project at Fort Detrick, Maryland.
Who's Who in CIA is a book written by the East German journalist Julius Mader and published in East Berlin in 1968, under Stasi auspices and probably with KGB assistance.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.
The U.S. government did not devote significant resources to countering disinformation campaigns during the 1970s; this changed during the Carter Administration in 1980 when a fake document reported the U.S. supported the Apartheid government in South Africa.
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991, when it was abolished.
James Earl Carter, Jr., better known as Jimmy Carter, served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
A document is a written, drawn, presented or recorded representation of thoughts.
President Jimmy Carter was shocked by the fabrications and afterwards the Central Intelligence Agency spent more efforts to counter Soviet disinformation.
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence.
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. is an American politician and author who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
The U.S. engaged in disinformation campaigns of its own — notably during the during the CIA effort to substitute Mohammed Reza Pahlavi for then-Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mossadegh and in 1979 during the during the Soviet–Afghan War.
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, known as Mohammad Reza Shah Persian: محمدرضا شاه, translit.
Use of the term in the English language became more prominent in 1986 after revelations that the Reagan Administration government had engaged in a disinformation campaign against then-leader of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi.
Libya is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and n*gg*r to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan was a Republican administration headed by Ronald Reagan between January 1981 and January 1989.