Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts, used to identify, locate and prove the guilt of an accused criminal.
Applied science is a discipline of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, like technology or inventions.
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A complete criminal investigation can include searching, interviews, interrogations, evidence collection and preservation and various methods of investigation.
Interrogation is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information.
An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given.
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Modern-day criminal investigations commonly employ many modern scientific techniques known collectively as forensic science.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
Criminal investigation is an ancient science that may have roots as far back as c. 1700 BCE in the writings of the Code of Hammurabi.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC.
In the code it is suggested that both the accuser and the accused had the right to present evidence they collected.
In the modern era criminal investigations are most often done by government police forces.
Private investigators are also commonly hired to complete or assist in criminal investigations.
A private investigator, a private detective, or inquiry agent, is a person who can be hired by individuals or groups to undertake investigatory law services.
An early recorded professional criminal investigator was the English constable.
Around 1250 CE it was recorded that the constable was to "...
matters of fact, not matters of judgment and law."