Computer-Aided Design


Computer-aided design is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

C is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

Digital electronics or digital circuits are electronics that handle digital signals – discrete bands of analog levels – rather than by continuous ranges as used in analog electronics.

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.


CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.


CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations.


The term CADD is also used.


Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation, or EDA.

Electronic design automation is a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as printed circuit boards and integrated circuits.


In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation or computer-aided drafting, which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.

Computer software, or simply software, is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.

Technical drawing, drafting or draughting, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is to be constructed.


CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects.

In computer graphics, a raster graphics image is a dot matrix data structure, representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector is a geometric object that has magnitude and direction.

Vector graphics is the use of polygons to represent images in computer graphics.


However, it involves more than just shapes.


As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.

Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in:


CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional space.

3D computer graphics are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models and by techniques specific to them.

Solid modeling is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and computer modeling of three-dimensional solids.


CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more.

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles.

In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.

Industrial Arts is an educational program which features fabrication of objects in wood or metal using a variety of hand, power, or machine tools.


CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals, often called DCC digital content creation.

Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.

Content creation is the contribution of information to any media and most especially to digital media for an end-useror publication.


The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s.


Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics, and discrete differential geometry.

Computer graphics are pictures and movies created using computers – usually referring to image data created by a computer specifically with help from specialized graphical hardware and software.

Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry.


The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design.

Geometric modeling is a branch of applied mathematics and computational geometry that studies methods and algorithms for the mathematical description of shapes.

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