Color or colour is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, blue, yellow, green, orange, or purple.

Red is the color at the longer-wavelengths end of the spectrum of visible light next to orange, at the opposite end from violet.

Yellow is the color between green and orange in the spectrum of visible light, the color of ripe lemons, sunflowers and gold.

Blue is the colour between violet and green on the optical spectrum of visible light.

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This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of light.

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base to a point called the apex or vertex.

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes.

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Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them.

In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency.


This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc.


By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates.


The RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm ; medium-wavelength, peaking near 534–545 nm ; and short-wavelength light, near 420–440 nm.

Trichromacy or trichromaticism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.


There may also be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness.

The CMYK color model is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.

Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.


The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species also varies considerably from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot readily be compared to one another.

Modern humans are the only extant members of Hominina clade, a branch of the taxonomical tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes.


Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays but is insensitive to red.

Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.

A bumblebee is a member of the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.


Papilio butterflies possess six types of photoreceptors and may have pentachromatic vision.

Papilio is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini.


The most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods such as the mantis shrimp with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units.

The tomato is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.


The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science.

Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception."


It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range that is, what is commonly referred to simply as light.

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.

In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.

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