Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
English - Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Climate change mitigation generally involves reductions in human emissions of greenhouse gases.
A greenhouse is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.
Mitigation may also be achieved by increasing the capacity of carbon sinks, e.g., through reforestation.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry.
Mitigation policies can substantially reduce the risks associated with human-induced global warming.
Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time.
According to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report, "Mitigation is a public good; climate change is a case of the 'tragedy of the commons.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The tragedy of the commons is an economic theory of a situation within a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
Effective climate change mitigation will not be achieved if each agent acts independently in its own selfish interest, suggesting the need for collective action.
Some adaptation actions, on the other hand, have characteristics of a private good as benefits of actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at least in the short term.
Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue, particularly for poor individuals and countries.
Examples of mitigation include phasing out fossil fuels by switching to low-carbon energy sources, such as renewable and nuclear energy, and expanding forests and other "sinks" to remove greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Low-carbon power comes from processes or technologies that, produce power with substantially lower amounts of carbon dioxide emissions than is emitted from conventional fossil fuel power generation.
Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Energy development is a field of endeavor focused on making available sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms to meet the needs of society.
Energy efficiency may also play a role, for example, through improving the insulation of buildings.
Another approach to climate change mitigation is climate engineering.
Climate engineering, commonly referred to as geoengineering, also known as climate intervention, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climatic system with the aim of limiting adverse climate change.
Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, then entered into force on 21 March 1994.
The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference of the climate system.
Scientific analysis can provide information on the impacts of climate change, but deciding which impacts are dangerous requires value judgments.
In 2010, Parties to the UNFCCC agreed that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C relative to the pre-industrial level.
With the Paris Agreement of 2015 this was confirmed, but was revised with a new target laying down "parties will do the best" to achieve warming below 1.5 °C.
The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020.
The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions does not appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 °C.
Other mitigation policies have been proposed, some of which are more stringent or modest than the 2 °C limit.