Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
Climate Change 101 with Bill Nye | National Geographic by National Geographic
Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions.
Climate Change: Lines of Evidence by The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions.
Plate tectonics is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of 7 large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, over the last 100's of millions of years.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra, and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to as global warming.
Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval.
Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models.
In the study of past climates, climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct meteorological measurements and enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions over a longer fraction of the Earth's history.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
A climate record—extending deep into the Earth's past—has been assembled, and continues to be built up, based on geological evidence from borehole temperature profiles, cores removed from deep accumulations of ice, floral and faunal records, glacial and periglacial processes, stable-isotope and other analyses of sediment layers, and records of past sea levels.
Periglaciation describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures.
An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
More recent data are provided by the instrumental record.
General circulation models, based on the physical sciences, are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate data, make future projections, and link causes and effects in climate change.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physical science: