Clarence Thomas


Clarence Thomas is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States.

Associate Justice or Associate Judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice in some jurisdictions.

Clarence Thomas interviewed by Julian Bond: Explorations ... by University of Virginia


Thomas succeeded Thurgood Marshall and is the second black American to serve on the court.

Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from October 1967 until October 1991.

Clarence Thomas by Vincent Tinker


Thomas grew up in Savannah, Georgia, and was educated at the College of the Holy Cross and at Yale Law School.

The College of the Holy Cross or Holy Cross is a private, undergraduate Roman Catholic, Jesuit liberal arts college located in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States.

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.


In 1974, he was appointed an Assistant Attorney General in Missouri and subsequently practiced law there in the private sector.

Mo or MO may refer to:


In 1979, he became a legislative assistant to Senator John Danforth and in 1981 was appointed Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the U.S. Department of Education.

A legislative assistant is a legislative staffer who works for a legislator by monitoring pending legislation, conducting research, drafting legislation, giving advice and counsel, and making recommendations.

John Claggett Danforth is a retired American politician who began his career in 1968 as the Attorney General of Missouri and served three terms as United States Senator from Missouri.

The United States Department of Education, also referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.


In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Thomas Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination.


In 1990, President George H. W. Bush nominated Thomas for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.

George Herbert Walker Bush is an American politician who was the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.


He served in that role for 16 months and on July 1, 1991, was nominated by Bush to fill Marshall's seat on the United States Supreme Court.


Thomas's confirmation hearings were bitter and intensely fought, centering on an accusation that he had sexually harassed—or engaged in unseemly behavior toward—attorney Anita Hill, a subordinate at the Department of Education and subsequently at the EEOC.


The U.S. Senate ultimately confirmed Thomas by a vote of 52–48.

The United States Senate is a legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the House of Representatives makes up the U.S. Congress.


Since joining the court, Thomas has taken a textualist approach, seeking to uphold the original meaning of the United States Constitution and statutes.

Textualism is a formalist theory of the interpretation of law, holding that a legal text's ordinary meaning should govern its interpretation, as opposed to inquiries into non-textual sources such as the intention of the legislature in passing the law, the problem it was intended to remedy, or substantive questions of the justice and rectitude of the law.

In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, original meaning is the dominant form of the legal theory of originalism today.

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.


He is generally viewed as the most conservative member of the court.


A strong supporter of the Second and Tenth Amendments, Thomas has often approached federalism issues in a way that limits the power of the federal government and defends the rights of state and local governments.

Federalism refers to the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system.


At the same time, Thomas' opinions have generally supported a strong executive branch within the federal government.

The executive is the organ that exercises authority in and holds responsibility for the governance of a state.

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