Chelsea Elizabeth Manning is a United States Army soldier who was convicted by court-martial in July 2013 of violations of the Espionage Act and other offenses after disclosing to WikiLeaks nearly three-quarters of a million classified or unclassified but sensitive military and diplomatic documents.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit journalistic organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media from anonymous sources.
The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations.
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Manning was sentenced in August 2013 to 35 years imprisonment, with the possibility of parole in the eighth year, and to be dishonorably discharged from the Army.
Parole is the provisional release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions prior to the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole.
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Manning is a trans woman who, in a statement the day after sentencing, said she had felt female since childhood, wanted to be known as Chelsea, and desired to begin hormone replacement therapy.
From early life and through much of her Army life, Manning was known as Bradley; she was diagnosed with gender identity disorder while in the Army.
Gender dysphoria or gender identity disorder is the dysphoria a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.
Assigned in 2009 to an Army unit in Iraq as an intelligence analyst, Manning had access to classified databases.
In early 2010, she leaked classified information to WikiLeaks and confided this to Adrian Lamo, an online acquaintance.
Adrian Lamo is a first generation Colombian-American threat analyst and former hacker.
The material included videos of the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike, and the 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan; 251,287 U.S. diplomatic cables; and 482,832 Army reports that came to be known as the Iraq War Logs and Afghan War Diary.
The Granai airstrike, sometimes called the Granai massacre, refers to the killing of approximately 86 to 147 Afghan civilians by an airstrike by a US Air Force B-1 Bomber on May 4, 2009, in the village of Granai in Farah Province, south of Herat, Afghanistan.
The July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrikes were a series of air-to-ground attacks conducted by a team of two US AH-64 Apache helicopters in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, New Baghdad during the Iraqi insurgency which followed the Iraq War.
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Much of the material was published by WikiLeaks or its media partners between April and November 2010.
Manning was ultimately charged with 22 offenses, including aiding the enemy, which was the most serious charge and could have resulted in a death sentence.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
She was held at the Marine Corps Brig, Quantico in Virginia, from July 2010 to April 2011 under Prevention of Injury status—which entailed de facto solitary confinement and other restrictions that caused domestic and international concern—before being transferred to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where she could interact with other detainees.
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, immediately north of the city of Leavenworth in the upper northeast portion of the state.
Marine Corps Brig, Quantico was a Level I facility military prison operated at Marine Corps Base Quantico in Quantico, Virginia from 1972 until December 31, 2011.
She pleaded guilty in February 2013 to 10 of the charges.
The trial on the remaining charges began on June 3, 2013, and on July 30, she was convicted of 17 of the original charges and amended versions of four others, but was acquitted of aiding the enemy.
She was sentenced to serve a 35-year sentence at the maximum-security U.S. Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth.
Reaction to Manning's disclosures, arrest, and sentence was mixed.
Denver Nicks, one of her biographers, writes that the leaked material, particularly the diplomatic cables, was widely seen as a catalyst for the Arab Spring that began in December 2010, and that Manning was viewed as both a 21st-century Tiananmen Square Tank Man and an embittered traitor.
The Arab Spring was a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests, riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings.
Denver Morrissey Nicks is a U.S. journalist and photographer and a staff writer for Time magazine.
Reporters Without Borders condemned the length of the sentence, saying that it demonstrated how vulnerable whistleblowers are.
Reporters Without Borders, or Reporters Sans Frontières, is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
A whistleblower is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
On January 17, 2017, President Barack Obama commuted all but the last four months of Manning's remaining sentence; she is scheduled to be freed on May 17, 2017.
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician and the 44th and current President of the United States.