Celtic Britons


The Ancient Britons were those ancient inhabitants of the island of Great Britain who spoke the Celtic Common Brittonic language, which diversified into a group of related Celtic languages such as Welsh, Cornish, Pictish, Cumbric and Breton.

Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of northern and central Scotland in the Early Middle Ages.

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

A History of Celtic Britain S1 E1 by A History of Celtic Britain S1


The Britons lived all over the island of Great Britain and on the surrounding islands and archipelagos such as Orkney, Shetland, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.

Shetland, also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago that lies northeast of the island of Great Britain and forms part of Scotland, United Kingdom.

Orkney, also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

The Isle of Man, also known simply as Mann, is a self-governing Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between England and Northern Ireland.

Cruithne, Basque & Britons pre- Celts (The Red Race) by Human Biodiversity-Heathendom


Ireland was inhabited by a different group of Celts, speaking Goidelic.

The Celts were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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The coming of the Anglo-Saxons and Gaelic speaking Celts from the 5th century AD onwards, and the resulting gradual spread of the collection of dialects that would become the English language and Scots Gaelic, between them eventually extinguished Brittonic from much of its former territory by the 12th century AD, leaving Brittonic speakers only in Wales, Cornwall, Cumbria and Brittany.

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

Cornwall is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.


The term is usually used in reference to the people of Great Britain in the Iron Age, and through the Roman, Sub-Roman period, Middle Ages and the Tudor period, although there is thought to have been little or no change to the genetic mixture at the start of the period, and relatively little by the end.

The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period which ends with the completion of the reign of Elizabeth I in 1603.

The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.


During the 18th century however, and particularly after the Acts of Union 1707 the terms British and Briton would gradually come to be applied not just to the remaining Brittonic peoples themselves, but to all of the inhabitants of the United Kingdom, including the English, Scottish and Northern Irish.

The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.


By about 750 AD, much former Brittonic territory had been gradually absorbed by newcomers, in the form of the Anglo-Saxons and Gaelic speaking Scots, both of whom began to arrive from Continental Europe and Northern Ireland respectively in the decades following the End of Roman rule in Britain in the late 4th century AD.

Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe, or, by Europeans, simply the Continent, is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding surrounding islands.


However, numerous Brittonic peoples and polities continued to endure; Wales and the Welsh people remained independent and distinct after this, along with other pockets such as Kernow and Dumnonia in south west England, the Kingdom of Strathclyde in southern Scotland and Cumbria, some Pictish kingdoms of central, eastern and northern Scotland such as Fortriu, as well as the Bretons in northern France, and the inhabitants of Britonia in north western Spain, both groups having migrated from Britain in the 5th century AD.

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and near the North African coast.

Strathclyde, originally Cumbric: Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.

Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for a Pictish kingdom recorded between the 4th and 10th centuries, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general.


The first Britons probably all spoke a language that is now known as Common Brittonic which split during this period into the various descendant Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish, Breton and the related Pictish, all of which are still extant, apart from Cumbric and Pictish, although these latter two extinct languages have left extensive traces in the form of numerous place names and geographical features in northern England and Scotland.


The earliest evidence of the existence of the Britons and their language in historical sources dates to the 4th century BC, during the Iron Age, and the Britons were known to have traded with the Ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans.

Phoenicia was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the East Mediterranean coastal part of the Fertile Crescent, on the coastline of what is now Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Gaza, Syria and south west Turkey, though some colonies later reached the Western Mediterranean and even the Atlantic Ocean, the most famous being Carthage.

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity.

Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state.


After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD, a Romano-British culture emerged, and Latin and British Vulgar Latin coexisted with Brittonic.

The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain.

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.


Prior to, during and after the Roman era, the Britons lived throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth.

The Firth of Forth is the estuary of the River Forth in Scotland, where it flows into the North Sea, between Fife to the north and Lothian to the south.


Their relationship with the Picts, who lived north of the Firth of Forth, has been the subject of much discussion, though most scholars accept that the Pictish language was indeed a form of Common Brittonic, rather than a separate Celtic language.

The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.


With the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement in the 5th century AD, the culture and language of the Britons fragmented and much of their territory was taken over by the Anglo-Saxons, or in the case of northern Britain and the Isle of Man, by Gaelic Scots.


The extent to which this cultural and linguistic change was accompanied by wholesale changes in the population is still a matter of discussion.


During this period some Britons migrated to mainland Europe and established significant settlements in Brittany as well as Britonia in modern Galicia, Spain.


By the 11th century, remaining Brittonic Celtic-speaking populations had split into distinct groups: the Welsh in Wales, the Cornish in Cornwall, the Bretons in Brittany, and the Brythonic people of the Hen Ogledd in southern Scotland and northern England in the Cumbric speaking Kingdom of Strathclyde.

Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain and the Early Middle Ages.


Common Brittonic developed into the distinct Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish and Breton.

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