Cardiovascular surgery is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Great vessels is a term used to refer collectively to the large vessels that bring blood to and from the heart.
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Frequently, it is done to treat complications of ischemic heart disease, correct congenital heart disease, or treat valvular heart disease from various causes including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease and atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is a specific form of arteriosclerosis in which an artery-wall thickens as a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells and proliferation of intimal-smooth-muscle cell creating a fibrofatty plaque.
Coronary artery disease, also known as ischemic heart disease, is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Congenital heart defect, also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.
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It also includes heart transplantation.
A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.