Butter is a solid dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk, to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals, primarily cows, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, yaks, horses, camels, and domestic buffaloes.
Churning is the process of shaking up cream to make butter, and various forms of butter churn have been used for the purpose.
It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or, preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
A spread is a food that is literally spread, generally with a knife, onto food products such as bread and crackers.
Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks.
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a neocortex, hair, three middle ear bones and mammary glands.
The yak is a long-haired bovid found throughout the Himalaya region of southern Central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
Salt such as dairy salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride, a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Flavor, or flavour, is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in ancient India and is commonly used in South Asian, Iranian and Arabic cuisines, traditional medicine, and religious rituals.
Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials.
Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream; in a water-in-oil emulsion, the milk proteins are the emulsifiers.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible.
Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C.
Colloquially, room temperature refers to the range of temperatures that people tend to prefer for indoor settings.
Refrigeration is a process of moving heat from one location to another in controlled conditions.
The density of butter is 911 g/L.
It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white.
Yellow is the color between green and orange in the spectrum of visible light, the color of ripe lemons, sunflowers and gold.
Its unmodified color is dependent on the animals' feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene.
The term carotene is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree.