Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
May 17, 1954 - Brown v. Board of Education by Voices of the Civil Rights Movement
The decision effectively overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education.
Brown v. Board of Education in PBS' The Supreme Court by Herve Cantero
Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
The Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.
As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.
de jure means 'a state of affairs that is in accordance with law', i.e. that is officially sanctioned.
Segregation is the separation of humans into ethnic or racial groups in daily life.
This ruling paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the Civil Rights Movement, and a model for many future impact litigation cases.
The Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.
Impact litigation or strategic litigation is the practice of bringing lawsuits intended to effect societal change.
However, the decision's fourteen pages did not spell out any sort of method for ending racial segregation in schools, and the Court's second decision in Brown II only ordered states to desegregate "with all deliberate speed".