Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of female primates.
Breast cancer - Symptoms and treatment by Healthchanneltv / cherishyourhealthtv
Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin.
A dimple is a small natural indentation in the flesh on a part of the human body, most notably in the cheek or on the chin.
How to Recognize Breast Cancer Symptoms by Howcast
In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin.
A lymph node or lymph gland, is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough.
Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, and family history.
Hormone replacement therapy is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person's parents, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others.
BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
Breast cancer most commonly develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level.
Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.
Lobular carcinoma is a form of tumor which primarily affects the lobules of a gland.
Some cancers, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions.
A precancerous condition or premalignant condition, sometimes called a potentially precancerous condition or potentially premalignant condition, is a state of disordered morphology of cells that is associated with an increased risk of cancer.
Ductal carcinoma in situ, also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast.
The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning lump.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments it may respond to.
The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial.
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.
A 2013 Cochrane review stated that it is unclear if mammographic screening does more good or harm.
Cochrane, previously known as the Cochrane Collaboration, is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization consisting of a group of more than 37,000 volunteers in more than 130 countries.
A 2009 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force found evidence of benefit in those 40 to 70 years of age, and the organization recommends screening every two years in women 50 to 74 years old.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services."
The medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it.
Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Raloxifene is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogenic actions on bone and anti-estrogenic actions on the uterus and breast.
Surgical removal of both breasts is another preventative measure in some high risk women.
In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy.
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Types of surgery vary from breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy.
Mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
Breast reconstruction may take place at the time of surgery or at a later date.
In those in whom the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, treatments are mostly aimed at improving quality of life and comfort.