the Black Sea


The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

A marginal sea is a division of an ocean, partially enclosed by islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas, adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean at the surface, and/or bounded by submarine ridges on the sea floor.

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers.

A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.

US show of force sends Russia a message in Black Sea by HD World Military Channel


It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni.

The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh, and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.

The Danube, known by various names in other languages, is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

Mud Bathing on the Black Sea Beach in Bulgaria. Цеци ще си прави кални бани! by Tsetsi


About a third of Europe drains into the Black Sea, including the countries of Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

Ukraine is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.


The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, and a volume of 547,000 km3.


It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, and features a wide shelf to the northwest.

The Crimean Peninsula, also known simply as Crimea, is a major land mass on the northern coast of the Black Sea that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.

The Dobrogea Plateau is a plateau in Eastern Romania located in the Dobruja region, surrounded to the north and west by the Danube and to the east by the Danube Delta and the Black Sea.

The Crimean Mountains are a range of mountains running parallel to the south-eastern coast of Crimea, between about 8–13 kilometers from the sea.


The longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km.


Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Burgas, Constanța, Giresun, Istanbul, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Odessa, Ordu, Poti, Rize, Samsun, Sevastopol, Sochi, Sukhumi, Trabzon, Varna, Yalta, and Zonguldak.

Burgas, sometimes transliterated as Bourgas, is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia, Plovdiv, and Varna, with a population of 211,033 inhabitants, while 277,922 live in its urban area.

Ordu is a port city on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, historically also known as Cotyora or Kotyora, and the capital of Ordu Province with a population of 213,582 in the city center.

Giresun, formerly Cerasus, is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about 175 km west of the city of Trabzon.


The Black Sea has a positive water balance; that is, a net outflow of water 300 km3 per year through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into the Aegean Sea.

The Dardanelles, also known in Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont, is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

The Bosphorus or Bosporus is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey.


Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange.

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.


The Black Sea outflow is cooler and less saline, and floats over the warm, more saline Mediterranean inflow – as a result of differences in density caused by differences in salinity – leading to a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters.


The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, and is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean.

A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.


The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean.

The Sea of Marmara, also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis, is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.


These waters separate Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Western Asia.


The Black Sea is also connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch.

The Kerch Strait is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east.


The water level has varied significantly.


Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land.


At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established.


It is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean.

The World Ocean or global ocean is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering almost 72% of Earth's surface, with a total volume of 1.332 billion cubic kilometers.

The Turkish Straits are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.


When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.

An endorheic basin is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.


Currently the Black Sea water level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean.

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