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20 Facts About Birmingham

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Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough of West Midlands, England.

A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county.

Blackpool 1-2 Birmingham City | Championship 2013/14 Highlights by Birmingham City Football Club

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It is the largest and most populous British city outside London, with a population in 2014 of 1,101,360.

Best goals from the Academy | U9s & U10s | 2014/15 by Birmingham City Football Club

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The city is in the West Midlands Built-up Area, the third most populous urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,440,986 at the 2011 census.

The West Midlands conurbation is the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the large towns of Sutton Coldfield, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Solihull, Stourbridge and Halesowen in the English West Midlands.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Birmingham's metropolitan area is the second most populous in the UK with a population of 3.8 million.

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or just metro, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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This also makes Birmingham the 9th most populous metropolitan area in Europe.

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A medium-sized market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew to international prominence in the 18th century at the heart of the Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw the town at the forefront of worldwide advances in science, technology, and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society.

The Midlands Enlightenment, also known as the West Midlands Enlightenment or the Birmingham Enlightenment, was a scientific, economic, political, cultural and legal manifestation of the Age of Enlightenment that developed in Birmingham and the wider English Midlands during the second half of the eighteenth century.

In sociology, industrial society refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.

Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city.

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By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".

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Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided a diverse and resilient economic base for industrial prosperity that was to last into the final quarter of the 20th century.

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Perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham.

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Its resulting high level of social mobility also fostered a culture of broad-based political radicalism, that under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, and a pivotal role in the development of British democracy.

Joseph Chamberlain was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.

The term political radicalism denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.

Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.

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From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz.

The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing by the Nazi German Luftwaffe of the city of Birmingham and surrounding towns in central England, beginning on 9 August 1940 and ending on 23 April 1943.

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The damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition and redevelopment in subsequent decades.

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Today Birmingham's economy is dominated by the service sector.

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta− world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; and an important transport, retail, events and conference hub.

The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank based in the Geography department at Loughborough University in England, that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London.

A metropolitan economy refers to the cohesive, naturally evolving concentration of industries, commerce, markets, [[firmshousing, human capital, [[in particular metropolitan area.

Higher education, post-secondary education, or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Birmingham's major cultural institutions – including the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, and the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music, literary and culinary scenes.

Birmingham Repertory Theatre, commonly called Birmingham Rep or just The Rep, is a producing theatre based on Centenary Square in Birmingham, England.

Birmingham Royal Ballet is one of the three major ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside The Royal Ballet and the English National Ballet.

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Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors.

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Birmingham's sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League and lawn tennis both originating from the city.

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each.

The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales.

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Its most successful football club Aston Villa has won seven league titles and one European Cup with the other professional club being Birmingham City.

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People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of Brum.

The Brummie dialect, or more formally the Birmingham dialect, is the accent and dialect spoken in Birmingham, England.

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