A bay-and-gable is a distinct architectural style of house that is ubiquitous in older neighbourhoods of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
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The most prominent feature is the large bay window that usually covers more than half of the front of the house, surmounted by a gable roof.
A bay window is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room.
Reinvigorating a Gable Eichler for a Family by HouzzTV
The classic bay and gable is a red brick semi-detached structure that is two and a half storeys tall, though many variations also exist.
A semi-detached house is a single family dwelling house that shares one common wall with the next house.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
A storey or story is any level part of a building with a floor that could be used by people.
It was one of the most common forms of house built in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Toronto.
The older parts of the city such as Cabbagetown and Little Italy are still home to many hundreds of examples.
Old Toronto was laid out with very long and narrow lots, usually only 13 to 20 feet wide.
Old Toronto is an administrative district and the retronym of the area within the original city limits of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from 1834 to 1998.
Toronto architectural tastes in this era were dominated by the various Victorian Revival styles, especially Gothic Revival.
The steep roofs and sharp vertical lines of the bay-and-gable imitated the Gothic style in a way that was affordable to middle class homeowners.
For homeowners who wanted more ornamentation, the gables and large windows both provided areas that could be elaborately decorated.
Stained glass windows are common in bay-and-gables, as are bargeboards running along the gables and terracotta tiles with ornamental motifs and designs.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
In some cases, only the front of the house would be given a brick façade in order to save money, with the back and sides done in siding.
The style was also very flexible.
The typical bay-and-gable house was made out of brick, but ones made completely out of wood were also easily produced.
Bay-and-gable houses were most often built as semi-detached buildings, but the basic design could also easily be modified into a stand-alone or row house format and many examples of both exist in Toronto.
In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terrace house or townhouse  is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings share side walls.
There are many variations on the bay-and-gable found in Toronto.
One of the most common simplifications on the style is to replace the bay window with a flat wall.
The style faded as modernism was embraced in the years after the Second World War.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.