Austria-Hungary, also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
World War I, also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century.
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Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary.
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire, occasionally also styled as the Danubian Monarchy, is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The House of Habsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe.
The Compromise required regular renewal, as did the customs union between the two components of the union.
A customs union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, and the third-most populous.
Russia, also officially known as the Russian Empire, was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.
Austria-Hungary also became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatuses for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire.
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers.
The Bosnian crisis of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted when on 8 October 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or Bosnia & Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH or B&H, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Sandžak/Raška, de jure northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar, was also under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia.
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar was an Ottoman sanjak that existed at times from 1864 until the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 in the territory of present-day Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo.
The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Islam is the religion articulated by the Quran, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.
A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows or practises the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on November 3, 1918.
The Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance – was one of the two main factions during World War I. It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente, after which it was dissolved.
The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside of Padua in the Veneto, northern Italy, and took effect 24 hours later.
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
The First Austrian Republic was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934.
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Second Polish Republic, also known as the Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars.