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Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial intelligence is intelligence exhibited by machines.

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including as one's capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving.

A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.

Microsoft's Artificial Intelligence Meltdown by Journeyman Pictures

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In computer science, an ideal "intelligent" machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.

In economics, game theory, decision theory, and artificial intelligence, a rational agent is an agent that has clear preferences, models uncertainty via expected values of variables or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions.

Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers.

How smart is today's artificial intelligence? by PBS NewsHour

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Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.

The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory.

4

As machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition.

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For example, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an exemplar of "artificial intelligence", having become a routine technology.

Optical character recognition is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo or from subtitle text superimposed on an image.

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Capabilities currently classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at a high level in strategic game systems, self-driving cars, and interpreting complex data.

An autonomous car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.

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Some people also consider AI a danger to humanity if it progresses unabatedly.

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AI research is divided into subfields that focus on specific problems or on specific approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards satisfying particular applications.

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The central problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.

Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

Natural language processing is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human languages.

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General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals.

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Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, soft computing, and traditional symbolic AI.

In computer science, soft computing is the use of inexact solutions to computationally hard tasks such as the solution of NP-complete problems, for which there is no known algorithm that can compute an exact solution in polynomial time.

The expression computational intelligence usually refers to the ability of a computer to learn a specific task from data or experimental observation.

12

Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics.

Economics is a social science concerned with the factors that determine the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Logic originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments.

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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The AI field draws upon computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience and artificial psychology.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Psychology is the study of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, specifically of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."

Human intelligence is the intellectual capacity of humans, which is characterized by perception, consciousness, self-awareness, and volition.

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This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.

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Attempts to create artificial intelligence have experienced many setbacks, including the ALPAC report of 1966, the abandonment of perceptrons in 1970, the Lighthill Report of 1973, the second AI winter 1987–1993 and the collapse of the Lisp machine market in 1987.

In the history of artificial intelligence, an AI winter is a period of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research.

In machine learning, the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers.

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In the twenty-first century AI techniques became an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science.

A technology company is a type of business entity that focuses primarily on the development and manufacturing of technology.

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