Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country located in southeastern South America.
South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere.
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Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with its neighbor Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.
Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay, is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Southern Cone is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
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With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one.
Latin America is the group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant.
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The country is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress.
A federal capital is a political entity, often a municipality or capital city, that serves as the seat of the federal government.
A province is almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.
The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system.
Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The earliest recorded human presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776.
The Río de la Plata — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.
Rioplatense Spanish is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay.
The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city.
A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central government.
The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century.
After 1930 Argentina descended into political instability and periodic economic crisis that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it nevertheless remained among the fifteen richest countries until the mid-20th century.
Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies.
The G20 is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies founded in 1999.
It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States.
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas.
The Organization of Ibero-American States, formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
Mercosur, officially Southern Common Market is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
It is the country with the highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of "very high".
The Human Development Index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, Argentina is classified as a high-income economy.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,056 or more in 2017, calculated using the Atlas method.