Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
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Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River approximately 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and approximately 135 miles north of New York City.
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Albany is known for its rich history, commerce, culture, architecture, and institutions of higher education.
Higher education, post-secondary education, or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education.
Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy, Schenectady, and Saratoga Springs.
Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat.
With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state.
As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856.
The area that later became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange.
In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the then Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The city was officially chartered in 1686 under English rule.
It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States.
Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States.
During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation.
The city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, and was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world.
The Great Lakes, also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that is part of the east-west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System.
In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany.
A political machine is a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses, who receive rewards for their efforts.
A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.
In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization; however, the New York State Legislature approved a $234 million building and renovation plan for the City in the 1990s that spurred renovation and building projects around the downtown area.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
New York State Legislature refers to the two houses that act as the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York.
In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector.
High technology, or high tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.