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African Americans

1

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa.

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations.

American ethnicity refers to people who self-identify their ethnicity as "American", rather than the more common hyphenated American ancestry groups that make up the majority of the American people.

An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities, such as common language, ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences.

The African Americans Many Rivers to Cross Episode 1 by Danny Booke

2

The term may also be used to include only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans.

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries after it gained independence and before the end of the American Civil War.

African Americans PT 3 by JohnHenry1869

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As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American.

4

Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States.

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

The United States has a racially and ethnically diverse population.

5

Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States.

Central Africa is a core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subregion of Africa.

6

On average, African Americans are of 73.2–80.9% West African, 18–24% European, and 0.8–0.9% Native American heritage, with large variation between individuals.

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.

7

According to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American.

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The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities.

9

Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.

African-Caribbeans are Caribbean people who trace their heritage to Africa in the period since Christopher Columbus's arrival in the region in 1492.

The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

10

African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, and in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.

Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law are applied to humans allowing them to be classified as property, to be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and they cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.

In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.

The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.

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After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, with four million denied freedom from bondage prior to the Civil War.

The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865.

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Believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.

A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.

White people is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Europid ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context.

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The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men of property could vote.

The original United States Naturalization Law of March 26, 1790 provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship.

14

These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the Civil Rights Movement which sought political and social freedom.

The term Reconstruction Era, in the context of the history of the United States, has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress, with the reconstruction of state and society.

The Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.

African-American culture, also known as Black-American culture, in the United States refers to the cultural contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from American culture.

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In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected president of the United States.

Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who is the 44th and current President of the United States.

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