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Africa

1

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

Afri were the inhabitants of Africa, referring in its widest sense to the entirety of North Africa.

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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2

At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers six per cent of Earth's total surface area and 20.4 per cent of its total land area.

Earth is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

The lion is one of the big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

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3

With 1.1 billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population.

Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina, a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes.

4

The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

The Isthmus of Suez is the 75-mile-wide strip of land that lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and is the boundary between the continents of Africa and Asia.

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

5

The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos.

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa.

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.

6

It contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact".

7

Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4.

The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

8

Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria by population.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and n*gg*r in the north.

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

n*gg*r, officially the Republic of n*gg*r, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the n*gg*r River.

9

Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.

The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, of which only modern humans remain, with several extinct relatives and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

A clade is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

10

Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.

The Equator usually refers to an imaginary line on the Earth's surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

11

Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages.

Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

12

In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa.

13

Most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century.

Decolonization or decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.

Colonization is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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