The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures.
Jennifer Lawrence Wins Best Actress: 2013 Oscars by Oscars
It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry.
The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel.
Brie Larson Winning Best Actress by Oscars
The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Janet Gaynor receiving the award for her roles in 7th Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise.
The 1st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 1927 and 1928 and took place on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles, California.
Janet Gaynor was an American film, stage and television actress and painter.
Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.
The single transferable vote is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies.
However, during the 3rd ceremony held in 1930, only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had two films following their names on the ballots.
The following year, this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actress is nominated for a specific performance in a single film.
Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year.
Only three film characters have been nominated more than once in this category.
Elizabeth I of England, Leslie Crosbie in The Letter, and Esther Blodgett in A Star is Born.
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.
Six women on the list have received an Honorary Academy Award for their acting; they are Greta Garbo, Barbara Stanwyck, Mary Pickford, Deborah Kerr, Gena Rowlands, and Sophia Loren.
The Academy Honorary Award, instituted in 1948 for the 21st Academy Awards, is given by the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards, although prior winners of competitive Academy Awards are not excluded from receiving the Honorary Award.
Virginia Cathryn "Gena" Rowlands is an American film, stage, and television actress, whose career in the entertainment industry has spanned over six decades.
Gladys Louise Smith, known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-American film actress, writer, director, and producer.
Since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actresses.
Katharine Hepburn has won the most awards in this category, with four Oscars.
Meryl Streep has been nominated on 16 occasions.
As of the 2017 ceremony, Emma Stone is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Mia Dolan in La La Land.