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12

1

12 is the natural number following 11 and preceding 13.

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting and ordering.

2

The product of the first three factorials, twelve is a superior highly composite number, divisible by 2, 3, 4, and 6.

In mathematics, a superior highly composite number is a natural number which has more divisors than any other number scaled relative to some positive power of the number itself.

A highly composite number, also known as an anti-prime, is a positive integer with more divisors than any smaller positive integer has.

A composite number is a positive integer that can be formed by multiplying two smaller positive integers.

3

It is approximately the number of full lunations of the moon in a year, and the number of years for a full cycle of Jupiter, which was historically considered the brightest "wandering star".

In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude.

A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

4

It is central to many systems of timekeeping, including the Western calendar and units of time of day, and frequently appears in the worldâ€™s major religions.